Transport Modeling of Microplastics and an Application to Fethiye Bay

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dc.contributor.author Numanoğlu Genç, Aslı
dc.date.accessioned 2019-07-26T10:52:26Z
dc.date.available 2019-07-26T10:52:26Z
dc.date.issued 2018
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12485/512
dc.description Tamamlandı en_US
dc.description.abstract The purpose of this project is modeling the transport and accumulation of microplastics in Fethiye Bay. The model proposed will provide knowledge on the microplastic pollution in that region. The Project team has a significant number of publications and research on Fethiye Bay which is a Specially Protected Area (SPA). In the literature it has been shown that, protected areas are vulnerable to plastic pollution (Juan et al., 2014). This is the main reason in the selection of Fethiye Bay as the study region. Additionally the data base of the results of a TÜBİTAK Project of the research team, which is on the water quality monitoring and evaluation of the Fethiye Bay will be a basis to the modeling of microplastics. One of the most important pollution aspects in the oceans and seas of the World is existence of plastic litter. According to research, 75% of litter in the oceans is plastic (Galgani et al., 2015). It has been shown that plastic litter exists at the sea surface, seawater column and the sea bottom from macro to micro size. The negative effects of plastic litter on the sea fauna, food chain and human health has also been studied (Koelmans et al., 2015; Galloway, 2015; Frias et al., 2014). Swallowing of plastic litter causes death of the marine life (Critchell and Lambrechts,2016). There is evidence that microplastics are consumed at the bottom of the food chain and therefore transferred to the upper part of the food chain (Farrel and Nelson, 2013; Critchell and Lambrechts, 2016). Consequently interception of plastic litter into the marine environment and removing the existing litter is a must. However there is not sufficient amount of study on the accumulation patterns of the plastic litter and the variables affecting these patterns. The level of plastic pollution in marine waters has been shown in many studies and this resulted in international action plans. EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive, MFSD, 2008/56/EC) aims member countries to reach ‘Good Environmental Status (GES)’ by 2020. There are 11 descriptors of GES. Descriptor number 10 (D10) is for the marine waters and it states that the amount of marine litter should not harm the coastal and marine environment (Stuparu et al., 2015). Additionally at the 18th Contracting Parties meeting a decision has been made on the development of regional plans for the prevention of marine litter. This decision depends on the ‘Land Based Sources Protocol’ of the Barcelona Convention, to which Turkey is a contracting party (Galgani vd. 2013). Regional plans are encouraged to involve academic participation and supporting academic projects is encouraged. Academic contribution is important in the sustainability of the regional plans. Modeling the transport of plastic litter in the oceans and seas is important in the determination of the sources and accumulation areas. For the Mediterranean Sea, even though it’s known that it has a vulnerable ecosystem, there is not enough data on the distribution, type, amount and source of the marine litter. For the regional seas (like Aegean, Ionian and Adriatic Seas) there are few significant studies at all (Suaria and Aliani, 2014). Turkish coasts are characterized by enclosed coastal waters. The studies on plastic litter are on the sea bottom sediments and the beaches (Eryaşar et al., 2014; Topçu et al., 2013). Vişne and Bat (2015) have evaluated the situation in Black Sea within the frame work of MFSD. Modeling of plastic litter in coastal waters is not investigated yet. There is a good number of software on the coastal pollution transport models in the World today. Among them CROSMOR, CSTM-ROMS, Delft3D, ECOMSED and MIKE21 step forward. Delft3D is based in Holland, and it is a 2-D and a 3-D model which simulates the hydrodynamics, pollution transport and water quality of the fluvial, wetland and coastal waters (DELFT3D, 2016). MIKE software is developed by ‘Danish Hydraulic Institute’ and it’s submodules MIKE 21 and MIKE 3 simulate the sediment transport and water quality of coastal waters (MIKE, 2016). In this project HYDROTAM-3D software will be used in the modeling studies. HYDROTAM-3D is a unique model to Turkey with many coastal applications along the Turkish coast. Hydrodynamic submodule of HYDROTAM-3D simulates wind and density driven currents. In the proposed project 3-D transport modeling of microplastics will be studied by using the Hydrodynamic submodule (Numanoğlu Genç, 2016). The model in this proposed Project will help to determine the concentration and dispersion of microplastic pollution in the coastal areas. The results of the model will contribute to the database for the sustainable protection of the marine environment. The results will also contribute as a basis to the future regulations. Additionally two master theses will be carried out within the Project and publications in the context of the thesis are planned. en_US
dc.description.sponsorship TUBITAK 1002 en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.subject Civil Engineering en_US
dc.title Transport Modeling of Microplastics and an Application to Fethiye Bay en_US
dc.type Project-TUBITAK en_US
dc.contributor.authorID 0000-0003-1223-0842

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